Caring For Young Trees
The first five years are critical for the long-term health of a tree. Proper watering, pruning, and other tree care will ensure a healthy, mature tree and drastically reduce future maintenance costs.
Watering Young Trees
Is your tree thirsty? Conserve water and preserve trees by following these “smart watering” guidelines.
- Deep watering. Young trees require regular watering for good health and disease prevention. Deep watering (see watering instructions below) prevents weak surface roots from forming and encourages the growth of robust roots underground.
- Check soil moisture once a week 4-6 inches below the surface. Soil should be moist but not wet.
- Conserve water while preserving trees. Increase watering for trees during drought, while conserving water in other areas of your home and landscape.
- Watch for signs of drought stress. Are leaves wilting, yellowing, curling or browning at the edges?
- Use mulch to help conserve moisture. Cover the soil with a 3- to 5-inch layer of mulch starting a few inches from the base of the trunk and extending 1–2 feet from the tree in all directions (creating a circle around the tree).
- Lawn irrigation does not provide adequate irrigation for trees. Lawn irrigation or light sprinkling for 5 or 10 minutes waters only a few inches of soil and encourages weak surface roots.
Steps to Growing a Healthy Tree
Learn specifics about your tree species at Canopy’s Tree Library: www.canopy.org.
After planting, through Year 1:
- Three days after planting, fill the watering basin three times using 15-20 gallons of water. This initial watering is very important as roots are the most sensitive right after planting.
- For the next 3 weeks, fill the watering basin with water 5-10 gallons once a week.
- Keep your young tree mulched to suppress weeds and protect young roots from drying out.
- For the following 6 months–or until the end of the growing season (mid-November)–fill the tree basin with water every other week. Roots need oxygen just as much as they need water and conservation at this stage will actually help your tree(s) grow!
- Continue watering every month in the absence of a soaking rain through the first winter. Water frost-intolerant trees before a cold spell, to help insulate roots.
When rain is scarce, usually beginning in late Spring, begin watering again every two weeks or every month, depending on the tree species. This limited watering will ‘train’ the roots to seek out moisture deeper underground and further away from the trunk, creating a resilient tree. Shallow watering leads to shallow rooting and the need for more frequent watering. Maintain the watering basin so it continues to hold water, and spread it out to hold more water, over time.
Over the next two summers experiment with decreasing frequency and increasing duration and coverage even more. Monthly soakings should maximize growth while conserving water. Many irrigation timers actually have a setting for monthly watering. You can also set several start times 15 to 30 minutes apart to decrease runoff and improve soil penetration.
In the following few years, be wary of prolonged dry periods. One or two summer waterings can mean the difference between a tree that thrives and one that is permanently stunted. Between 3 and 5 years old, your tree should be fully established. Though occasional deep watering, especially during times of drought, will help your tree thrive.
Weeding Young Trees
Plants and weeds compete with the tree for water and nutrients. Keep the base of the tree free of other living plants such as weeds or grass.
Protecting Young Trees
- Protect trees from lawn equipment like weed whackers and mowers. Cuts in the cambium layer, just behind the tree bark, can permanently interrupt transport of water and nutrients to the rest of the tree and expose the tree to infection by pests and diseases.
- Protect young trees from chemicals. Pesticides and herbicides can burn or damage a young tree’s roots and leaves.
- Place mulch around young trees to suppress weeds, conserve moisture, and protect roots from drying out.
- Prune young trees with great care. Poor pruning early in a tree’s life leads to costly maintenance later. Learn how to properly prune your young trees so they grow into healthy, mature trees.